Global Climate Finance Architecture

The global climate finance architecture is complex and always evolving. Funds flow through multilateral channels – both within and outside the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism – as well as through bilateral and regional initiatives and channels. A growing number of recipient countries are also setting up national climate change funds that receive funding from multiple contributor countries in an effort to coordinate and align contributor interests with national priorities.

This figure provides an overview of the global architecture, focusing particularly on public climate financing mechanisms. The types of climate finance available vary from grants and concessional loans, to guarantees and private equity. The architecture has differing structures of governance, modalities and objectives. The proliferation of climate finance mechanisms increases the challenges of coordinating and accessing finance, as well as its monitoring. While the transparency of climate finance programmed through multilateral initiatives is increasing, detailed information on bilateral initiatives, regional and national funds are often less readily available.

The climate finance architecture

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Implementing Agencies and Institutions

Multilateral Funds and Initiatives

Regional and National Funds

  • Amazon Fund
  • Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund
  • Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund
  • Benin National And for the Environment and Climate
  • Brazilian National Fund on Climate Change
  • Cambodia Climate Change Alliance Trust Fund
  • Climate Resilient Green Economy—Ethiopia
  • Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund
  • Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund
  • Maldives Climate Change Trust Fund
  • Mali Climate Fund
  • Mexico Climate Change Fund
  • Philippines People’s Survival Fund
  • Rwanda’s Green Fund
  • South Africa Green Fund

Bilateral Funds and Initiatives

  • GCCI – Global Climate Change Initiative (US)
  • GCPF – Global Climate Partnership Fund (Germany, UK and Denmark)
  • ICF – International Climate Fund (UK)
  • IKI – Internationale Klimaschutzinitiative (international climate initiative, Germany)
  • MDG-F – MDG Achievement Fund (implemented by UNDP)
  • NAMA facility – Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action facility (UK, Germany, Denmark and the EC)
  • NICFI – Norway’s International Climate Forest Initiative
  • REM – REDD+ Early Movers (Germany and UK)